Concrete Poetry: Cascade of Creativity


Concrete poetry appeals more of your visual sense along with its message. The visual portion of poem is served with forms and patterns of letters, words and typography. The letters and words are shaped and written in different ways to represent something visually that you are writing on.

For instance: If you write a concrete poem on cat then you are supposed to craft letters and  words in the shape of cat which is visually as well as arguably adequate.

Concrete Cat by Dorthy Charles

Read the analysis and summary of Concrete Cat by Dorthy 

Concrete poetry is also known as shape poetry in which image plays vital role than words to convey message.

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Macro-structure of Reconciliation: Obama’s Keynote Address

This paper examines the President Barack Obama’s Keynote address (2004) at Democratic National Convention (DNC) that was delivered in BostonMassachusetts. This paper analyses address with the critical discourse analysis approach of Tuen A. Van Dijk in which he proposes Critical Discourse Studies (CDS) not including only analysis but also critical theory and critical application.



As Van Dijk defines Critical Discourse Studies as a Socio-cognitive approach, here I examine the address with interpretation (text) upon social tradition (context) including his rhetoric, public speaking, linkage of American dream and other.

Barack Obama, President of United States of America, delivered this keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention (DNC) on the night of Tuesday, July 27, 2004. This speech is often considered the speech that made him president. President Obama was then Illinois State senator and United States senate candidate.

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Constitution of Human Beings and Behaviours for Marx, Freud and Lacan

Diwakar Pyakurel                                                                                                                                                                           Sub-Editor of The Himalayan Times Online Edition/ Faculty Member at GGIC

Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan, all three are among few most important scholars of the modern era who delved into what constitutes beings and behaviours of human race. The essays “Preface (to a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy)” by Marx, “A Note on the Unconscious in Psychoanalysis” by Freud and “The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the I as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience” by Lacan also present their ideas on what actually forms human personalities and behaviours. Founding fathers of Marxism and two prominent schools of modern psychoanalysis respectively, the scholars have respectively attributed to economy, the unconscious and the Mirror Stage as formative elements of human consciousness, activities and life as a whole.

In Karl Marx’s “Preface…”, the author boldly claims that economy is the sole basis for every aspect of human existence.  For him, economic status or “material conditions” of society precedes every other activity by human beings, including how they think of themselves and the world. In the essay, he says, “the mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life” (7). With this perspective, he is inverting a set belief that consciousness precedes human activities and the conditions they live in. Vehemently rejecting that idea, an inversion is proposed, “it is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness” (Marx 7).

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